Discovering Illinois: A State Steeped in History and Diversity
Illinois, pronounced as IL-in-OY, characterizes a significant sector of the American Midwest. Surrounded by the states of Wisconsin, Iowa, Missouri, Kentucky, and Indiana, it also boasts a water border with Michigan, thanks to Lake Michigan. Being the 25th largest land area among the U.S. states, it holds the sixth-largest population and the fifth-largest gross domestic product (GDP).
A Closer Look at Illinois: A Geographical and Economic Overview
Primarily, Illinois is known for its highly varied economy. The northeastern part of the state houses the global city of Chicago, while the northern and central regions are renowned for their industrial and agricultural contributions. The southern part of Illinois is rich in natural resources like coal, timber, and petroleum.
The state’s strategic position and beneficial geography make it a crucial transportation hub. The Port of Chicago connects the Atlantic Ocean through the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence Seaway and the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River through the Illinois Waterway. Moreover, the Mississippi, Ohio, and Wabash rivers form parts of the state’s geographical boundaries.
Illinois’s O’Hare International Airport has consistently ranked among the world’s busiest airports for several decades. The state has always been a reflection of the United States, even influencing American culture.
The Historical Tapestry of Illinois
Illinois has a rich history that dates back several thousand years, with various indigenous cultures inhabiting the region. One such advanced civilization centered in the Cahokia region. The French were the first Europeans to arrive in the 17th century, settling near the Mississippi River.
American settlers began to arrive from Kentucky via the Ohio River after the U.S. independence in 1783, and Illinois became a part of the country’s oldest territory, the Northwest Territory, eventually achieving statehood in 1818. The Erie Canal’s construction boosted commercial activity in the Great Lakes, turning the small settlement of Chicago into one of the fastest-growing cities worldwide.
The 19th century saw Illinois transform into one of America’s most industrialized states, attracting immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. The state witnessed the Great Migration from the South, which established a large community of African Americans, especially in Chicago, giving birth to the city’s famous jazz and blues cultures. Today, Chicago is one of the world’s leading commercial centers; its metropolitan area, informally known as Chicagoland, holds about 65% of Illinois’s 12.8 million residents.
Presidential Legacy in Illinois
Illinois has the unique honor of being the resident state of three U.S. presidents – Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, and Barack Obama. In addition, Ronald Reagan, another U.S. president, was born and raised in the state. The state pays tribute to Lincoln with its official state slogan, the Land of Lincoln, which has been displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state also houses the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and will soon be the home to the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago.
The Origin of ‘Illinois’
The name ‘Illinois’ has a deep-rooted history and has been spelled in numerous ways in early records. American scholars initially believed that Illinois meant ‘man’ or ‘men’ in the Miami-Illinois language. However, further research indicates otherwise. The name also derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe *wa, which translates to ‘he speaks the regular way.’ This term was later adopted into the Ojibwe language, potentially the Ottawa dialect, and transformed into ilinwe *.
The Early Inhabitants of Illinois
Before the arrival of the Europeans, the territory of Illinois was home to American Indians of successive cultures for thousands of years. The Koster Site excavation demonstrated 7,000 years of continuous habitation. One of the most remarkable pre-European civilizations was the Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois.
The Advent of the Europeans
French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet were the first Europeans to explore the Illinois River in 1673. Later in 1680, French explorers constructed a fort at the site of present-day Peoria, and in 1682, another fort atop Starved Rock in today’s Starved Rock State Park.
Struggle for Statehood
Illinois officially became the 21st U.S. state in 1818. However, the journey to statehood was not simple. The original provisions of the Northwest Ordinance had specified a boundary that would have left the state with no shoreline on Lake Michigan. However, after much negotiation and discussion, an amendment to shift the border to 42° 30′ north was passed, adding a significant 8,500 sq mi to the state, including the lead mining region near Galena, and almost 50 miles of Lake Michigan shoreline and the Chicago River.
The 19th Century
The 19th century was a significant period in Illinois’s history. The state capital was moved to Springfield in 1837, following which a sixth capitol building was erected in 1867, which continues to serve as the Illinois capitol today.
Despite being a ‘free state,’ Illinois history is not free from the dark shadow of slavery. The ethnic French had owned black slaves since the 1720s, and American settlers had already brought slaves into the area from Kentucky. Slavery was nominally banned by the Northwest Ordinance, but that was not enforced for those already holding slaves.
Today, Illinois stands proud as a state steeped in history, culture, and economic strength. Its diverse population, vibrant cities, and rich natural resources make it a significant part of the American landscape. Whether it’s the towering skyscrapers of Chicago, the vast farmlands of central Illinois, or the historic sites paying homage to the state’s storied past, this great state offers something for everyone.